Buisiness Letter

June 30, 2017

Ethan Anderson                                                                                                                                 Office of Admissions                                                                                                                 Massachusetts Institute of technology

Dear sir:


I would like to visit MIT and have a tour around the campus. I am currently a high-school student in the Philippines and I would want to go to study there someday. I am planning to go there next week, May 21. If this is not a good date to visit, please inform me immediately. I have a few questions regarding my visit and tour. How long is the tour around the whole campus? What should I do in order for me to enter the campus? If the tour takes more than one day, can I stay in your school’s dorm? Am I allowed to have breakfast or lunch in the cafeteria?

I look forward to your reply. I hope to see you and your facilities in the near future.





The Diet of an Athlete

The most important aspect that an athlete should always keep an eye on is his/her diet. Getting the proper nutrition is crucial, especially when the athlete is going though a considerable amount of training. This is because the effectiveness of any training regimen is dependent on the effort that the athlete can output, which, in turn, is determined whether or not the athlete has something in his stomach. So, for a time, I was under a semi-strict diet that only allowed me to eat certain foods on specific days. And yes, that meant no ice cream.

Your boy,

Seth Martin

More Thomas

Sir Thomas More , venerated by Roman Catholics as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman and noted Renaissance humanist. Born in Milk Street in London, on 7 February 1478, Thomas More was the son of Sir John More, a successful lawyer and later judge, and his wife Agnes. He was the second of six children. More was educated at St Anthony’s School, then considered one of London’s finest schools. More began his studies at Oxford in 1492, and received a classical education. Studying under Thomas Linacre and William Grocyn, he became proficient in both Latin and Greek.

More then left Oxford after only two years—at his father’s insistence—to begin legal training in London at New Inn, one of the Inns of Chancery. More married Jane Colt in 1505. She was five years younger than her husband, quiet and good-natured. Erasmus reported that More wanted to give his young wife a better education than she had previously received at home, and tutored her in music and literature. The couple had four children before Jane died in 1511: Margaret, Elizabeth, Cicely, and John. In 1504 More was elected to Parliament to represent Great Yarmouth, and in 1510 began representing London.

As secretary and personal adviser to King Henry VIII, More became increasingly influential: welcoming foreign diplomats, drafting official documents, and serving as a liaison between the King and Lord Chancellor Wolsey. More later served as High Steward for the universities of Oxford and Cambridge. In 1523 More was elected as knight of the shire for Middlesex and, on recommendation, the House of Commons elected More its Speaker. In 1525 More became Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, with executive and judicial responsibilities over much of northern England. More supported the Catholic Church and saw the Protestant Reformation as heresy, a threat to the unity of both church and society.

More believed in the theology, polemics, and ecclesiastical laws of the church, and “heard Luther’s call to destroy the Catholic Church as a call to war.” As the conflict over supremacy between the Papacy and the King reached its apogee, More continued to remain steadfast in supporting the supremacy of the Pope as Successor of Peter over that of the King of England. In 1530, More refused to sign a letter by the leading English churchmen and aristocrats asking Pope Clement VII to annul Henry’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon, and also quarrelled with Henry VIII over the heresy laws.  More, however, saw he could not render the support Henry expected from his Lord Chancellor for the policy the King was developing to support the annulment of his marriage with Catherine.

In 1532 he petitioned the King to relieve him of his office, alleging failing health. Henry granted his request. In 1533, More refused to attend the coronation of Anne Boleyn as the Queen of England. Technically, this was not an act of treason, as More had written to Henry acknowledging Anne’s queenship and expressing his desire for the King’s happiness and the new Queen’s health. Despite this, his refusal to attend was widely interpreted as a snub against Anne, and Henry took action against him.  He was sentenced to be hanged, drawn, and quartered (the usual punishment for traitors who were not the nobility), but the King commuted this to execution by decapitation. The execution took place on 6 July 1535.

Queen Mary of Scots

Mary, Queen of Scots, also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567. Mary, the only surviving legitimate child of James V of Scotland, was six days old when her father died and she acceded to the throne. She spent most of her childhood in France while Scotland was ruled by regents, and in 1558, she married the Dauphin of France, Francis. Mary was born on 7 or 8 December 1542 at Linlithgow Palace, Scotland, to King James V and his French second wife, Mary of Guise. She was the great-niece of King Henry VIII of England, as her paternal grandmother, Margaret Tudor, was Henry VIII’s sister.

King Henry VIII of England took the opportunity of the regency to propose marriage between Mary and his own son, Prince Edward, hoping for a union of Scotland and England. On 1 July 1543, when Mary was six months old, the Treaty of Greenwich was signed, which promised that at the age of ten Mary would marry Edward and move to England, where Henry could oversee her upbringing. The treaty provided that the two countries would remain legally separate and that if the couple should fail to have children the temporary union would dissolve. With her marriage agreement in place, five-year-old Mary was sent to France to spend the next thirteen years at the French court. The French fleet sent by Henry II, commanded by Nicolas de Villegagnon, sailed with Mary from Dumbarton on 7 August 1548 and arrived a week or more later at Roscoff or Saint-Pol-de-Léon in Brittany.

In November 1558, Henry VIII’s elder daughter, Queen Mary I of England, was succeeded by her only surviving sibling, Elizabeth I. Under the Third Succession Act, passed in 1543 by the Parliament of England, Elizabeth was recognised as her sister’s heir, and Henry VIII’s last will and testament had excluded the Stuarts from succeeding to the English throne. Yet, in the eyes of many Catholics, Elizabeth was illegitimate, and Mary Stuart, as the senior descendant of Henry VIII’s elder sister, was the rightful queen of England. Mary returned to Scotland nine months after her husband’s death, arriving in Leith on 19 August 1561. Having lived in France since the age of five, Mary had little direct experience of the dangerous and complex political situation in Scotland. Mary was convicted on 25 October and sentenced to death with only one commissioner, Lord Zouche, expressing any form of dissent.

Despite this, Elizabeth hesitated to order her execution, even in the face of pressure from the English Parliament to carry out the sentence. At Fotheringhay, on the evening of 7 February 1587, Mary was told that she was to be executed the next morning. She spent the last hours of her life in prayer, distributing her belongings to her household, and writing her will and a letter to the King of France. Mary was not beheaded with a single strike. The first blow missed her neck and struck the back of her head. The second blow severed the neck, except for a small bit of sinew, which the executioner cut through using the axe.

Across The World

Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano. Magellan was born in northern Portugal in around 1480, either at Vila Nova de Gaia, near Porto, in Douro Litoral Province, or at Sabrosa, near Vila Real, in Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Province. He was the son of Rodrigo de Magalhães, Alcaide-Mor of Aveiro (1433–1500, son of Pedro Afonso de Magalhães and wife Quinta de Sousa). Born into a Portuguese noble family in around 1480, Magellan became a skilled sailor and naval officer and was eventually selected by King Charles I of Spain to search for a westward route to the Maluku Islands (the “Spice Islands”).

For that expedition, the Spanish king, Charles I,  named Magellan and Faleiro captains so that they could travel in search of the Spice Islands in July. He raised them to the rank of Commander of the Order of Santiago. The king granted them monopoly of the discovered route for a period of ten years, their appointment as governors of the lands and islands found, with 5% of the resulting net gains etc”. The expedition was funded largely by the Spanish Crown, which provided ships carrying supplies for two years of travel.  Finally they set sail on 20 September 1519 and left Spain. Heading northwest, the crew reached the equator on 13 February 1521. On 6 March they reached the Marianas and Guam.

On 16 March Magellan reached the island of Homonhon in the Philippines, with 150 crew left. Members of his expedition became the first Europeans to reach the Philippine archipelago. Rajah Humabon of Cebu was friendly towards Magellan and the Spaniards; both he and his queen Hara Amihan were baptized as Christians and were given the image of the Holy Child (later known as Santo Niño de Cebu) which along with a cross (Magellan’s Cross) symbolizes the Christianization of the Philippines.  On the morning of 27 April 1521, Magellan sailed to Mactan with a small attack force.

During the resulting battle against Lapu-Lapu’s troops, Magellan was struck by a bamboo spear, and later surrounded and finished off with other weapons. The casualties suffered in the Philippines left the expedition with too few men to sail all three of the remaining ships. Consequently, on 2 May they abandoned and burned Concepción. Reduced to Trinidad and Victoria, the expedition fled westward to Palawan. When Victoria, the one surviving ship and the smallest carrack in the fleet, returned to the harbor of departure after completing the first circumnavigation of the Earth, only 18 men out of the original 237 men were on board. Among the survivors were two Italians, Antonio Pigafetta and Martino de Judicibus.

Terribly Great

Ivan IV Vasilyevich, commonly known as Ivan the Terrible or Ivan the Fearsome, was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547. The last title was used by all his successors. Ivan was the first son of Vasili III and his second wife, Elena Glinskaya, who was of half Serbian and half Litvin descent. When Ivan was three years old, his father died from an abscess and inflammation on his leg that developed into blood poisoning.

Ivan was proclaimed the Grand Prince of Moscow at the request of his father. His mother Elena Glinskaya initially acted as regent, but she died of what many believe to be assassination by poison. During his reign, Russia conquered the Khanates of Kazan, Astrakhan and Sibir, becoming a multicontinental state spanning approximately. Ivan exercised autocratic control over Russia’s hereditary nobility and developed a bureaucracy to administer his new territories. He transformed Russia from a medieval state into an empire, though at immense cost to its people, and its broader, long-term economy. Ivan established close ties with the Kingdom of England. Russo-English relations can be traced to 1551.

Now, with the use of English merchants, Ivan engaged in a long correspondence with Elizabeth I of England. While the queen focused on commerce, Ivan was more interested in a military alliance. Historic sources present disparate accounts of Ivan’s complex personality: he was described as intelligent and devout, yet given to rages and prone to episodic outbreaks of mental instability that increased with his age. In one such outburst, he killed his son and heir Ivan Ivanovich.

This left his younger son, the pious but politically ineffectual Feodor Ivanovich, to inherit the throne. Ivan was an able diplomat, a patron of arts and trade, and founder of the Moscow Print Yard, Russia’s first publishing house. He was popular among Russia’s commoners (Ivan the Terrible in Russian folklore), and he is also noted for his paranoia and harsh treatment of the Russian nobility. Ivan died from a stroke while playing chess with Bogdan Belsky on 28 March 1584. Upon Ivan’s death, the Russian throne was left to his unfit and childless middle son Feodor. Feodor died childless in 1598, ushering in the Time of Troubles.

The New World

Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer. Born in the Republic of Genoa, under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean. Those voyages and his efforts to establish settlements on the island of Hispaniola initiated the permanent European colonization of the New World. His name in Italian is Cristoforo Colombo and, in Spanish, it is Cristóbal Colón.  He was born before 31 October 1451 in the territory of the Republic of Genoa (now part of modern Italy), though the exact location remains disputed. His father was Domenico Colombo, a middle-class wool weaver who worked both in Genoa and Savona and who also owned a cheese stand at which young Christopher worked as a helper. His mother was Susanna Fontanarossa. Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino, and Giacomo were his brothers.

In 1473, Columbus began his apprenticeship as business agent. At a time when European kingdoms were beginning to establish new trade routes and colonies, motivated by economic competition, Columbus proposed to reach the East Indies (South and Southeast Asia) by sailing westward. This eventually received the support of the Spanish Crown, which saw a chance to enter the spice trade with Asia through this new route. During his first voyage in 1492, he reached the New World instead of arriving at Japan as he had intended, landing on an island in the Bahamas archipelago that he named “San Salvador”. Over the course of three more voyages, he visited the Greater and Lesser Antilles, as well as the Caribbean coast of Venezuela and Central America, claiming all of it for the Crown of Castile.

Columbus was not the first European explorer to reach the Americas, having been preceded by the Viking expedition led by Leif Erikson in the 11th century, but his voyages led to the first lasting European contact with the Americas, inaugurating a period of exploration, conquest, and colonization that lasted several centuries. These voyages thus had an enormous effect on the historical development of the modern Western world. He spearheaded the transatlantic slave trade and has been accused by several historians of initiating the genocide of the natives. Columbus himself saw his accomplishments primarily in the light of spreading the Christian religion.

Now, Columbus never admitted that he had reached a continent previously unknown to Europeans, rather than the East Indies for which he had set course. He called the inhabitants of the lands that he visited indios (Spanish for “Indians”). His strained relationship with the Spanish crown and its appointed colonial administrators in America led to his arrest and dismissal as governor of the settlements on the island of Hispaniola in 1500, and later to protracted litigation over the benefits that he and his heirs claimed were owed to them by the crown. During a violent storm on his first return voyage, Columbus, then 41, suffered an attack of what was believed at the time to be gout. In subsequent years, he was plagued with what was thought to be influenza and other fevers, bleeding from the eyes, and prolonged attacks of gout. The suspected attacks increased in duration and severity, sometimes leaving Columbus bedridden for months at a time, and culminated in his death 14 years later.

Paano Nakaimpluwewensya ang mga Griyego at Romano sa Pag-unlad ng Sibilisasyon sa Daigdig?

Malaki ang impluwensiya ng mga Griyego at Romano sap ag-unlad ng mga sibilisasyon. Una sa lahat, nanggaling sa kanila ang unang pangkalahatang wika na Latin na kung saan nagmula ang maraming salita natin ngayon. Pati ang alpabeto at paraan ng pagsulat ay galing sa ginamit noong panahon ng Imperyong Romano. Dahil sa pagkakaroon ng pangkalahatang wika, alpabeto at paraan ng pagsulat, naging mabilis ang kalakalan at palitan ng ideya na nagbunsod ng mabilis na pag-unlad ng iba’t-ibang sibilisasyon. Isama na dito ang kalendaryo at mga yunit sa pagsukat na nagsilbing mabilis at patas na paraan para sa kalakalan at sa ibang aspeto ng pagbuo ng mga komunidad. Pati ang mga ideya sa Agham, Pilosopiya at Relihiyon ay naging malaking bahagi sa paghubog ng mga sibilisasyon ngayon. Kristianismo ang naging pinakamalaking impluwensiyang iniwan ng mga Romano. Mga ideya sa Politika at Gobyerno ay nag-ugat mula sa mga Romano. Ang pagkakaroon ng republika at ang mga bahagi nito ay nakatulong sa maraming sibilisasyon na masaayos ang kani-kanilang komunidad. Mga imbensyon at arkitektura na galling sa mga Romano ay hanggang ngayon makikita sa mga gusali at daan natin. Lahat ng ito ay nakapagbigay-daan sa pag-unlad at pagbuti ng buhay ng mga sibilisasyon.

Kagandahan ng Mapayapang Lipunan

Dumaan ang ating lipunan sa dalawang pandaigdigang digmaan. Sa kagustuhan ng ilang tao na maging pinuno ng buong mundo, naglaho lahat ng kaayusan sa mundo. Pero kung nagpokus na lang ang mga pinuno sa kani-kanilang bansa at kung paano sila makaiiwas sa gulo, malayo na siguro ang naging pag-unlad nga ating lipunan. Salamat pa rin sa mga pinunong gaya nina Churchill at Roosevelt na gumawa ng paraan na matigil ang digmaan.

Sa isang payapang lipunan merong kalayaan sa pakikipagkalakan ang iba’t-ibang tao na walang diskriminasyonsa lahi, kulay o edad. Makapagtatayo ng mga paaralan, ospital at iba pang imprastraktura para sa pagbuti ng buhay ng mga tao o pang-akit ng mga turista. Walang kakulangan sa pagkain at iba pang pangunahing pangangailangan kapag may kapayapaan. Walang sakit o epidemya sa kapaligiran.
Makikibahagi ako sa mga proyekto na makakatulong sa pag-unlad ng aking komunidad. Hihikayatin ko ang aking mga nakakatanda na pumili ng pinuno na ang puso ay serbisyo para sa karaniwang tao. Kung ganito ang bawat isa, malayo mangyari uli ang isang digmaan.

Pagsusuri sa mga Epekto ng Renaissance sa Kasalukuyang Panahon

Nagdala ng muling pagsilang o “rebirth” at paglawak ng kultura ang Renaissance. Naisama na ang mga taong hindi bahagi ng mga elitista at hinubog ang lipunan sa makatao at makatotohanang pananaw ng buhay. Kung wala ang Renaissance, baka hindi natin mapangalagaan at mapahalagahan ang Sining kagaya ng ginagawa natin ngayon. Hindi rin siguro mabubuo ang Agham gaya ng ayon kung wala ang mga taga-Renaissance gaya ni Leonardo da Vinci. Ang makataong pananaw ng Renaissance ay nag-udyok sa mga lipunan na magkaroon ng interes sa mga pananaliksik at imbensyon sa Agham. Noong Renaissance din naimbento ang “printing press” na nagbigay daan sa marami pang imbensyon at pagkalat ng mga bagong ideya. Dahil nagkaroon ng interes sa pagkamakatao o “humanism”, humina ang impluwensya ng Imperyong Romano at ng Simbahang Katoliko. Madaming kagaya ni Da Vinci ang naglakbay sa iba’t-ibang lugar sa Europa kaya’t naging mas malawak ang impluwensya ng Renaissance sa paglago ng mga kultura sa Europa. Tunay na pinag-apoy ng Renaissance ang puso at damdamin ng mga tao noon hanggang ngayon.